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Now it's time to hold fast to all that data you collected during your analyze phase and start making some use of it. During this phase, the goal is to create a thorough guide that you could pass off to a developer and they would be able to create your course. This is the heart and soul of your course. 

Starting off, you'll need to write strong objectives. There is an art and skill to writing good objectives. Understanding your learner's needs will be critical to writing good objectives. The better thought out and clear objectives you have, the more effective you will be able to evaluate your design. 

A good objectives will have three components; Behaviors, Conditions, & Criteria (Salama et al, 2024). Having a good understanding of the goals of behavior change or increased ability allow the assessment to gage mastery of the behavior. These behaviors are assessed within the bounds of certain conditions. These include the materials, resources, environment, and restrictions. For example, "The learner should be able to bake a cake when given all the correct ingredients". The last component, criteria is the piece that makes it measurable and able to evaluate. Within your objective criteria can reference another document or be written within the statement. For example, "The learner will be able to bake a cake that meets all the standards of baked good written by the School of Pastry". A helpful tool for writing objectives is Bloom's Taxonomy Verbs

Based on your objectives, you can create your assessment. Your assessment shouldn't be difficult to understand, unless your objective is to teach your students how to answer tough test questions (Gardner, 2011). It is important to test the learner on the knowledge that is required to master the task and have obtained the skills required to perform the skill independently. 

It might sound counter to create the assessment before you have decided on the format of the course, but the assessment strategy that shapes your course, no matter the format. Although the format is important, you probably have the least amount of control over this piece as your audience's environment and resources dictate it along with whatever institute structure you are educating within. It could be classroom, online, over two weeks or two hours, or a hybrid, go at your own pace.

Now for what you have been waiting on, creating the instructional strategy! This includes the pre-instructional activities, content presentation, and learner participation activities. It is helpful to use the Gange domains of learning to decide which strategies will be most appropriate based on the type of learning is to be done (Salama et al, 2024).


Salama, Christine, Adnan, Nor Hafizah, Davis, Robert. (2024). ADDIE explained: Design. Addie Explained – An Open Educational Resource for the Educational Technology Community.

"The ADDIE Design Phase." YouTube, uploaded by J. Clark Gardner, 25 Sept 2011,

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